Drug testing

The History of Thai Currency ? from Ancient Beads to Modern Baht

The history of Thailand currency traces the evolution of the medium of exchange used in Thailand prior to the 1st century. This dates from the days of barter trade, ancient beads and money in various shapes and sizes till the currency in modern times.

Ancient beads, seeds, bracelets and pebbles used as a medium of exchange in the early days around 200 ? 300 BC, have been discovered in Thailand, including old Roman copper coins dating back to 270 BC!

During the 1st ? 7th centuries, metallic coins of the Funan Kingdom in Indochina made their appearance in Thailand, followed by Dvaravati coins in the 7th ? 11th centuries. This was followed by a period in the history of Thai currency when money in different shapes and sizes from various places were in use.

Sandal wood flower coins or Dok Jan coins from the Sri Vijaya Kingdom in SE Asia were introduced in trade in the region in the 8th ? 13th centuries. Cowrie shells and baked clay coins were also used from the pre- Sukhothai era until the reign of King Rama IV, when they were dropped from circulation.

From the 14th ? 19th centuries, coins from the Lanna Kingdom in the northern Thailand embossed with various designs were also in circulation. Around the same period, 15th ? 19th centuries, Lanchang, the kingdom in northeastern Thailand introduced silver and copper pieces in long and narrow boat shapes.

In the history of Thai currency, the money that was most enduring was Pot Duang or bullet money. This first appeared during the Sukhothai era, 13th ? 14th centuries. Pot Duang money were hand-made coins. Metal strips were bent and folded into spheres very much like a bullet, thus the name, bullet money.

Bullet money was in circulation for 600 years from the Sukhothai era to Rattanakosin until its withdrawal from circulation in 1904 during the reign of King Rama V.

The most profound changes in the history of Thai currency occurred during the Rattankosin era in the reigns of King Rama IV and King Rama V. Standardized factory minted coins and bank notes were officially issued.

During the reign of King Rama IV, when foreign trade and diplomatic relations expanded, the paper money, in the form of royal promissory notes, was issued in 1853. These were followed by bank notes issued by the foreign to facilitate trade clearance.

In 1857, Queen Victoria of Britain presented Thailand with the first minting machine and the minting of the first Thai silver coins commenced. In 1858, a minting machine purchased from Britain and the Royal Mint was set up in the Grand Palace and the minting of coins went ahead full steam.

In the reign of King Rama IV, money was denominated in satang, tho, phi, padueng and baht.

During the reign of King Rama V, or King Chulalongkorn, coinage was streamlined. The numerous denominations were reduced to only two, satang and baht, based on the metric system, which remain till this day. Bank notes issued were in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 40,80, 100, 400 and 800 baht.

Today, the denominations have been streamlined to 25, 50 satang coins, 1, 5, 10 baht coins and 20, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 baht notes.

The history of Thai currency goes back more than 1,000 years, evolving from ancient beads and bracelets to the modern baht that's in current use.

The ancient beads, bullet money and old currencies can be viewed at the Bank of Thailand Museum in Bang Khun Phrom Palace within the premises of the Central Bank of Thailand.

The History of Thai currency first appeared in Tour Bangkok Legacies, a travel website with a historical perspective of renowned places preserved for posterity and the legendary figures who left these legacies in the landscape of Bangkok. The author, Eric Lim, is a freelance writer who lives in Bangkok Thailand.

chicago transportation service
In The News:

Tracking the progress of the third party testing we at PES are coordinating along with U-Plug Products LLC, of their 2 kW U-Plug magnet motor that is a 24"x6" portable cylinder weighing 20 pounds, expected to cost 2,000 USD. We want to run it three times longer (21 hours) than what the best batteries available could provide. (PESWiki; February-April 2016)
Pre-launch video announces a new LENR website coming March 1, 2016 at http://LookingForHeat.com The video is very well done as an entertaining piece that hopefully will go viral. (Free Energy Blog; February 21, 2016)
It's not easy to find a qualified testing agency that is also willing to sign off on something that appears to defy our existing understanding of the laws of physics. U-Plug has agreed to allow for a group of us scientists, including at least 3 PhDs to go test their unit and publish our report. (PESN; February 20, 2016)
So that this is quite clear, this is a test on a Regular Torch. NOT the ELFE flashlight. This is to compare them. 2 x NiMH AA 1.2v Battery's in a Regular Torch with a Halogen Bulb. Load is 2.8v and 0.85amps. (PESN; February 17, 2016)
Video explains the scientific principles behind how the ELFE flashlight harnesses endless free energy from the environment (Earth's magnetic field), which works better in some regions than others. It also shows the insides the torch. Uses the word "antennae," as one of the components. (PESN; February 14, 2016)
"The OPhone contains a capacitor that directly powers our phone. During extensive use this capacitor may become discharged, however this capacitor is being constantly trickle charged by Orbo. So after a period of time the capacitor will be recharged and the phone will be functional again. In essence the phone is charging itself." (Free Energy Blog; February 13, 2016)
The company that has figured out how to harness the earth's magnetic field to produce usable power and has been selling the ELFE flashlight (two more customer reports), is now developing a 3 kW generator. In two weeks, they are holding a business meeting for international distributors. (PESN; February 12, 2016)
Illinois company is gearing up to manufacture a 2 kW (115 volts, 17.3 amps) magnet motor that is load-following, portable, 24"x6" tube, weighing 20 pounds, very quiet, with 3-year warranty but expected to last at least 20 years with zero maintenance. Third-party tested. MSRP 2000 USD, beginning March, 2016, through distributors. (PESWiki; February 11, 2016)
The government agent who worked on this technology five decades ago, that is similar to Professor Steven E. Jones' Joule Ringer, thinks it is conceivable that we could eventually scale this solid state technology up to have a device the size and price of an air conditioner providing 20 kw. (PESWiki; February 9, 2016)
Nagendra Singh in Mumbai, India, informs us that they have built five of these and have two running for customers presently, in the 40 kVA range. "Presently it is too [expensive], costing 3200 USD per kva below 30 kva." (PESWiki; February 8, 2016)
The SunCell is described as a solid state "Sun in a Box." A 200 kW module would weigh around 250 pounds, with energy production cost being around 1 cent/kwh, so return on investment could be ten days. They are expected to be available commercially by Q1, 2017. (PESN; January 6, 2015)
"Today I received my Elfe Flashlight and it works. Time will tell if it meets the claims of automatically recharging, when depleted. If it holds, the claims a real breakthrough in FE technologie would have been accomplished." -- German customer (PESWiki; February 6, 2016)
The phone battery indicator stays near full even with heavy usage throughout the day. (The battery is charged by the internal OCube that pulls energy from the wheelwork of nature, solid state). (PESWiki; February 5, 2016)
The capacity of the Proton-3ND (Proton -3 Nano Diffusion) battery is projected to be 44 times the capacity of lithium batteries. Electric vehicles with these batteries would have more power and much more mileage at no extra charge. (PESN; January 4, 2016)
HH2 water fuel cell creates pure hydrogen off a 9-volt battery. This was a big diesel HH2 cell that was tested on a 16-liter Cat engine for CARB testing; yet it ran on very low amps and a low 9 volts. (PESWiki; February 3, 2016)
A former U.S. Government worker describes his effort to bring to public awareness (by highlighting things presently in the public domain) energy and anti-gravity technologies that the government had operational 50 years ago but has kept from the public. (PESN; February 2, 2016)
Imagine an incandescent bulb that is actually more efficient than LEDs! Well, it actually exists (MIT) and it does so by recycling light. (Free Energy Blog; February 2, 2016)
SMBC-Comics.com has posted a fun spoof on our skeptics. (Free Energy Blog; February 1, 2016)
"OK, so a lot of people are asking what's the difference between an Orbo power cell and traditional batteries." Batteries store energy, Orbo generates energy, then trickle charges a lithium ion battery.] (Free Energy Blog; February 1, 2016)
Mr. Keshe is as misleading in the field of free energy as he is regarding me. That has been my experience the years I've been exposedto his work. He takes something and blows it so far out of proportion that it barely resembles the fact from which it was extrapolated into infinity. He demands: "Close PESWiki now." (PESWiki; January 31, 2016)
They have achieved solid state operation using an electromagnetic pump to spray the molten silver between the electrodes for the 1000/second continuous pulsing for continuous power production. (Free Energy Blog; January 29, 2016)

Jewelry and the Darkside: Fashionable Gothic Jewelry

No, by jewelry and the darkside, we are not referring... Read More

The Life of Nikola Tesla - Intro

It is not my purpose to claim to know all... Read More

The Dating Game

Lord Renfrew, Disney Professor of Archaeology at Cambridge University states:... Read More

A Short Biography on Some of Europes Most Loved and Hated Monarchs - Pt 3 King Ludwig II

King Ludwig II of Bavaria, named after his grandfather, was... Read More

Some Villain Thoughts About a Container Village

Preview: "Shipping containers" have yet nothing to do with "housing"... Read More

Creating a Virtual Art Gallery

To the online artist, it might seem a paradox, at... Read More

Berenguer Sauniere - This Place is Terrible

INSPIRATIONAL COMMENTS:"Let me issue and control a nation's money and... Read More

From Dynasty to Destiny: Ten Celebrated Inventions of Ancient China

In the last two centuries, new cultural discoveries have nearly... Read More

African Americans: Get the Winning Edge

Everybody wants an edge that will give him or her... Read More

Personal Protection Specialists and Celebrity Stalking

Celebrity stalking has become the way for the socially inept... Read More

Precious Stones -The Big Five: Part 1, The Emerald

The emerald is probably the most rare of all precious... Read More

Humans are not special, hate to break it to you

I hate to break it to you, but humans are... Read More

The Western Cowboy

In the State of Texas the Western Cowboy can be... Read More

Bewitching Jewelry -- Amulets, Talismans and Charms

Throughout the ages, men and women have used gemstones and... Read More

Basic Chinese Pinyin Rules

* Make sure you set your browser encoding correctly to... Read More

Yes Tarot Readings Are For You!

Have you ever thought?What is the best way out of... Read More

Masking European Animism

The ancient peoples of Europe were more fond of masks... Read More

Bohemian Grove

"Bohemian Grove is 'the greatest men's party on Earth', according... Read More

Tarot Cards Demystified: The Suit of Cups

There are many ways to interpret the symbolism found in... Read More

Debussy and Gamelan According to a 150 Year Old Man

Hello!If you haven't been transported by the mesmerizing sounds of... Read More

Native American Indian Art Wood Carvings of the Pacific Northwest

Native American Indian art in the American southwest is dominated... Read More

Dreaming of Love and Peace

She dreams of touring Europe and the US to sing... Read More

Garnet is Januarys Birthstone

If you're still young enough to remember your birthday, you... Read More

A Maiden Trip

I belong to a hamlet called 'Konthai' which is in... Read More

Flows of Civilization; Views from a Think Tank

Over the past few years we have been discussing many... Read More

efficient street lighting led street light Pete's produce ..