Drug testing

Hydroponics Gardening - An Introduction To Hydroponics Gardening For Beginners (Part 3) Lighting

THE BASICS OF HYDROPONICS.

An Introduction To Indoor Plant Grow Lights.

There are basically three types of grow lights used in horticulture. These are:

  • High Intensity Discharge Lights. (HID)
  • These come in two types, the Metal Halide Grow Light(MH) and the High Pressure Sodium Grow Light (HPS)

    Metal Halide.
    Metal halide bulbs are designed for plants during their growing cycle. That is, for non-fruiting or non-blooming plants. Metal halide lighting is therefore the best HID choice for the plant's growing phase.

    High Pressure Sodium Lights.
    The HPS grow light is used primarily for plants that are in their blooming or fruiting phase. Modern high pressure sodium lighting can, however, be bought, which is enhanced for blue spectrum (for vegetative growth) and for red spectrum (for flowering growth). This means that they can be used throughout the entire growing process for most types of plant.

    Dual light Systems.
    For optimal performance, switchable systems (400 watt and 1000 watt) and dual light systems (250 watt MH + 250 watt HPS giving 500 watt output, 400 watt MH + 400 watt HPS giving 800 watt output and 400 watt MH + 600 watt HPS giving 1000 watt output) are available. This type of grow light system gives the best all round lighting choice.

  • Mercury Vapour Lamps.
    Phosphorous coated to promote both blue and red spectrums these lamps are suitable for both the growing and blooming stages of plant growth. They give off more blue light that red and are a cheap way to get started, however the lamp wants replacing every nine months as it can become volatile. Mercury vapour lights cost more to run and maintain compared to HPS, MH or fluorescents.

  • Fluorescent Grow Lights.
    These lights emit less light than high intensity discharge lights and although they can be used throughout the plant cycle their lack of brightness will produce small yields. The light produced tends to be softer and less damaging to tender young plants. For this reason, the fluorescent grow light is popular for seedlings and cuttings, an excellent way to establish young plants.

  • Ballasts.
    All of the above types of lights use some kind of a ballast system. The one most people are familiar with is the fluorescent light. This has, a small, built in, ballast. It allows the fluorescent tube to build up enough energy to strike, and excite the molecules within the tube, causing light to be given off.

    Metal Halide and HPS grow lights are usually run from remote ballasts. These are external boxes containing the electronics to pre-heat and run the lamp. The ballast is connected to the lamp holder and to the mains power supply. Each ballast used is rated for the lamp wattage and so it is necessary to have different ballasts available for each of the different values of lamp to be used. HID bulbs should be replaced after 12 to 18 months of use. Although HID lamps will continue to light beyond 18 months of use, they will have lost up to 30 percent or more of their lumen output while consuming the same amount of electricity.

    Mercury Vapour Lights. Most of these lamps, up to a value of 500 watts, require no additional ballast. You just screw them into the lamp holder supplied with your equipment.

    N.B.

    Here is a word of warning about lighting.

    There are an awful lot of companies out there selling lights for the hydroponics enthusiast. As in all walks of life, there are good and bad suppliers and manufacturers of lighting equipment. Always look for equipment made by a reputable company and backed by an official testing scheme. (For example the C E mark in Europe means that the article is up to European standards of safety and quality).

    Cheap, nasty, home made, dangerous lights have dogged the hydroponics market for some years. There are these kinds of light and there are well built, professional grade, horticultural lights on today's market. The first are often death traps, being cobbled together from the cheapest, obsolete, end of the line components that are usually mismatched and wrongly configured.

    To think that these poorly built, badly wired, misconfigured lights are being fitted in damp, humid and sometimes even wet, grow rooms is a very scary thought indeed. The installation of these poor quality, dangerous, lights in your home, where your family lives and plays, is always a very grave risk. All this in the name of a bargain!

    So don't risk your own life or the lives of those who live with you. Buy from a reputable source! Lighting is possibly the most important decision for indoor horticulture, cheap normally represents a health risk. For the sake of saving a relatively small amount of money, is it really worth it?

    You have been warned!

    Copyright (C) 2004, 2005 J R Haughton.
    --- All Rights Reserved ---

    A partner in a thriving retail hydroponics supply business, Rickie Haughton is the owner of hydroponics-gardening-information.com which aims to cater for all levels of expertise in the field of hydroponics gardening. The website is packed with good content about all aspects off hydroponics gardening and offers a free newsletter to all subscribers.

    chicago transportation service
    In The News:

    Tracking the progress of the third party testing we at PES are coordinating along with U-Plug Products LLC, of their 2 kW U-Plug magnet motor that is a 24"x6" portable cylinder weighing 20 pounds, expected to cost 2,000 USD. We want to run it three times longer (21 hours) than what the best batteries available could provide. (PESWiki; February-April 2016)
    Pre-launch video announces a new LENR website coming March 1, 2016 at http://LookingForHeat.com The video is very well done as an entertaining piece that hopefully will go viral. (Free Energy Blog; February 21, 2016)
    It's not easy to find a qualified testing agency that is also willing to sign off on something that appears to defy our existing understanding of the laws of physics. U-Plug has agreed to allow for a group of us scientists, including at least 3 PhDs to go test their unit and publish our report. (PESN; February 20, 2016)
    So that this is quite clear, this is a test on a Regular Torch. NOT the ELFE flashlight. This is to compare them. 2 x NiMH AA 1.2v Battery's in a Regular Torch with a Halogen Bulb. Load is 2.8v and 0.85amps. (PESN; February 17, 2016)
    Video explains the scientific principles behind how the ELFE flashlight harnesses endless free energy from the environment (Earth's magnetic field), which works better in some regions than others. It also shows the insides the torch. Uses the word "antennae," as one of the components. (PESN; February 14, 2016)
    "The OPhone contains a capacitor that directly powers our phone. During extensive use this capacitor may become discharged, however this capacitor is being constantly trickle charged by Orbo. So after a period of time the capacitor will be recharged and the phone will be functional again. In essence the phone is charging itself." (Free Energy Blog; February 13, 2016)
    The company that has figured out how to harness the earth's magnetic field to produce usable power and has been selling the ELFE flashlight (two more customer reports), is now developing a 3 kW generator. In two weeks, they are holding a business meeting for international distributors. (PESN; February 12, 2016)
    Illinois company is gearing up to manufacture a 2 kW (115 volts, 17.3 amps) magnet motor that is load-following, portable, 24"x6" tube, weighing 20 pounds, very quiet, with 3-year warranty but expected to last at least 20 years with zero maintenance. Third-party tested. MSRP 2000 USD, beginning March, 2016, through distributors. (PESWiki; February 11, 2016)
    The government agent who worked on this technology five decades ago, that is similar to Professor Steven E. Jones' Joule Ringer, thinks it is conceivable that we could eventually scale this solid state technology up to have a device the size and price of an air conditioner providing 20 kw. (PESWiki; February 9, 2016)
    Nagendra Singh in Mumbai, India, informs us that they have built five of these and have two running for customers presently, in the 40 kVA range. "Presently it is too [expensive], costing 3200 USD per kva below 30 kva." (PESWiki; February 8, 2016)
    The SunCell is described as a solid state "Sun in a Box." A 200 kW module would weigh around 250 pounds, with energy production cost being around 1 cent/kwh, so return on investment could be ten days. They are expected to be available commercially by Q1, 2017. (PESN; January 6, 2015)
    "Today I received my Elfe Flashlight and it works. Time will tell if it meets the claims of automatically recharging, when depleted. If it holds, the claims a real breakthrough in FE technologie would have been accomplished." -- German customer (PESWiki; February 6, 2016)
    The phone battery indicator stays near full even with heavy usage throughout the day. (The battery is charged by the internal OCube that pulls energy from the wheelwork of nature, solid state). (PESWiki; February 5, 2016)
    The capacity of the Proton-3ND (Proton -3 Nano Diffusion) battery is projected to be 44 times the capacity of lithium batteries. Electric vehicles with these batteries would have more power and much more mileage at no extra charge. (PESN; January 4, 2016)
    HH2 water fuel cell creates pure hydrogen off a 9-volt battery. This was a big diesel HH2 cell that was tested on a 16-liter Cat engine for CARB testing; yet it ran on very low amps and a low 9 volts. (PESWiki; February 3, 2016)
    A former U.S. Government worker describes his effort to bring to public awareness (by highlighting things presently in the public domain) energy and anti-gravity technologies that the government had operational 50 years ago but has kept from the public. (PESN; February 2, 2016)
    Imagine an incandescent bulb that is actually more efficient than LEDs! Well, it actually exists (MIT) and it does so by recycling light. (Free Energy Blog; February 2, 2016)
    SMBC-Comics.com has posted a fun spoof on our skeptics. (Free Energy Blog; February 1, 2016)
    "OK, so a lot of people are asking what's the difference between an Orbo power cell and traditional batteries." Batteries store energy, Orbo generates energy, then trickle charges a lithium ion battery.] (Free Energy Blog; February 1, 2016)
    Mr. Keshe is as misleading in the field of free energy as he is regarding me. That has been my experience the years I've been exposedto his work. He takes something and blows it so far out of proportion that it barely resembles the fact from which it was extrapolated into infinity. He demands: "Close PESWiki now." (PESWiki; January 31, 2016)
    They have achieved solid state operation using an electromagnetic pump to spray the molten silver between the electrodes for the 1000/second continuous pulsing for continuous power production. (Free Energy Blog; January 29, 2016)

Maintaining Oxygen Levels in Fish and KOI Ponds

Severe environmental stressors are the most frequent causes of sudden... Read More

Five Tips For Garden Sanctuaries

The design of your garden has an amazing affect on... Read More

How and When to Plant Roses

When spring comes and the ground is thawed, it is... Read More

Lawn Care Business Owners - Dont Buy Yourself A Job

Most businesses consist of the owner only or the owner... Read More

Fall Garden Chores for Spring Flowering Bulbs

As the school busses begin to rumble down the road... Read More

How to Grow Bamboo

Bamboo is a mysterious and elusive plant that baffles taxonomists... Read More

Fleur De Lotus: Purity in a Sullied World

Rising from a muddy pond, a lotus flower blossoms. Such... Read More

Black Walnut Trees Produce A Natural Insecticide

The black walnut tree manufactures a substance that is a... Read More

Tips on How to Plant Roses

When spring comes and the ground is thawed, it is... Read More

Hydroponics Gardening - An Introduction To Hydroponics Gardening For Beginners (part 4) Environment

THE BASICS OF HYDROPONICS.The Success or Failure of Your Plants... Read More

Edible Flowers in Your Garden

Flowers can be an integral part of cooking. While most... Read More

Low Maintenance Teak Furniture

In all likelihood you have heard of teak furniture and... Read More

About Hummingbirds and How to Attract Them to Your Garden

Visualize watching a bright green hummingbird in your garden moving... Read More

Creativity with Ponds

Here's where your creative instincts kick in. This is where... Read More

Fall Flowering Bulbs

Deciduous trees dazzle us with the brilliance of the golds,... Read More

How To Find Cheap Flower Delivery In Your Area

As humans, we are always on the lookout for a... Read More

How to Grow Snow Peas

Snow peas may have been named because in bright sunlight... Read More

Plants, Birds, Love and Deer Hate

Hi Friends;This is the second year in a row I... Read More

Teak Umbrella : Add the Final Touch to Your Patio

Okay, so you have agonized for weeks and finally went... Read More

Metal Outdoor Furniture - Explained

Mention metal patio furniture and you probably think of the... Read More

Taming Your Outdoors

Slapping yourself silly trying to keep mosquitoes from biting you?... Read More

Tuscan Garden Design

If you're looking for a beautiful, old world garden style,... Read More

The Benefits of Landscaping

How much have you thought about landscaping? Do you know... Read More

Growing a Sustainable Garden!

Do you wish you could grow a sustainable vegetable garden?... Read More

Gardeners: Contain Yourselves!

Whether you live in a tiny city apartment or on... Read More

led street lights led outdoor lights Pete's produce ..